“Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069” by William Strauss and Neil Howe.Помимо 7 интересующих нас типов поколений (с 1833 г.), авторы рассматривают поколения с 1584 г. Не будем вдаваться в подробности, а укажем лишь несколько фактов.
Late Medieval Saeculum (generation/type (вроде архетипа)/birth years)
Arthurian Generation/Hero (Civic)/1433–1460
Humanist Generation/Artist (Adaptive)/ 1461–1482
Reformation Generation Prophet/(Idealist)/1483–1511
Reprisal Generation Nomad/(Reactive)/1512–1540
Elizabethan Generation Hero/(Civic)/1541–1565
Parliamentarian Generation Artist/(Adaptive)/1566–1587
New World Saeculum
Puritan Generation/Prophet (Idealist)/1588–1617
Cavalier Generation/Nomad (Reactive)/1618–1647
Glorious Generation/Hero (Civic)/1648–1673
Enlightenment Generation/Artist (Adaptive)/1674–1700
Awakening Generation/Prophet (Idealist)/1701–1723Liberty Generation/Nomad (Reactive)/1724–1741
Republican Generation/Hero (Civic)/1742–1766
Compromise Generation/Artist (Adaptive)/1767–1791
Civil War Saeculum
Transcendental Generation/Prophet (Idealist)/1792–1821
Gilded Generation/Nomad (Reactive)/1822–1842
Progressive Generation/Artist (Adaptive)/1843–1859
Great Power Saeculum
Missionary Generation/Prophet (Idealist)/1860–1882
Great Power Saeculum
Missionary Generation/Prophet (Idealist)/1860–1882
Lost Generation/Nomad (Reactive)/1883–1900
G.I. Generation /Hero (Civic)/1901–1924
Silent Generation/Artist (Adaptive)/1925–1942
(baby) Boom Generation/Prophet (Idealist)/1943–1960
13th Generation (a.k.a Generation X)/Nomad (Reactive)/1961–1981
Millenial Generation (Generation Y )/Hero (Civic)/1982–200…New Silent Generation (Generation Z) /Artist (Adaptive)/200…-
Теперь с помощью wiki попытаемся объяснить значение последних семи определений видов поколений.
The Lost Generation (1883–1900) is a phrase made popular by American author Ernest Hemingway in his first published novel The Sun Also Rises. Often it is used to refer to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris and other parts of Europe, some after military service in the First World War. Figures identified with the "Lost Generation" include authors and poets Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson, Waldo Peirce, and John Dos Passos.
The Greatest (G.I.) Generation (1901–1924) is a term coined by journalist Tom Brokaw to describe the generation of Americans who grew up during the deprivation of the Great Depression, and then went on to fight in World War II. It follows the Lost Generation of the 1920s and precedes the Silent Generation of the 1950s. On a world scale this generation is often referred to as "The Veterans". William Strauss and Neil Howe use the term "G.I. Generation" to describe those born in the United States from about 1901 through 1924.
The name Silent Generation (1925–1942) was coined in the November 5, 1951 cover story of Time to refer to the generation within the United States coming of age at the time. The article, (which defined the generation at the time as born from 1923 to 1943), found its characteristics as grave and fatalistic, conventional, possessing confused morals, expecting disappointment but desiring faith, and for women, desiring both a career and a family. The article stated:
Youth today is waiting for the hand of fate to fall on its shoulders, meanwhile working fairly hard and saying almost nothing. The most startling fact about the younger generation is its silence.
With some rare exceptions, youth is nowhere near the rostrum. By comparison with the Flaming Youth of their fathers & mothers, today's younger generation is a still, small flame. It does not issue manifestoes, make speeches or carry posters. It has been called the "Silent Generation."
The name was used by Strauss and Howe in their book Generations as their designation for that generation in the United States of America born from 1925 to 1945. The generation is also known as the Postwar Generation and the Seekers, when it is not neglected altogether and placed by marketers in the same category as the G.I., or "Greatest", Generation. In England they were named the Air Raid Generation as children growing up amidst the crossfire of World War II.
According to Strauss and Howe's interpretation, the typical grandparents were of the Missionary Generation; their parents were of the Lost Generation and G.I. Generation. Their children are Baby Boomers and Generation X (a.k.a. 13th Generation) - or sometimes labeled as Generation Jones. Their typical grandchildren are of the Generation Y (a.k.a. Millennials.) and sometimes Generation Z.
Nearly fifty million Americans were born to the Silent Generation in America from the beginning of 1925 through 1942.
The Baby boomer (1943–1960) is a term used to describe a person who was born during the demographic Post-World War II baby boom. The term "baby boomer" is sometimes used in a cultural context, and sometimes used to describe someone who was born during the post-WWII baby boom. In general, baby boomers are associated with a rejection or redefinition of traditional values; however, many commentators have disputed the extent of that rejection, noting the widespread continuity of values with older and younger generations. As a group, they were the healthiest, and wealthiest generation to that time, and amongst the first to grow up genuinely expecting the world to improve with time.
One of the unique features of Boomers was that they tended to think of themselves as a special generation, very different from those that had.
Generation X (1961–1981) is a term used to identify people born after the post-World War II increase in birth rates. The term has been used in demography, the social sciences, and marketing, though it is most often used in popular culture. In the U.S. Generation X was originally referred to as the "baby bust" generation because of the drop in the birth rate following the baby boom.
In the UK the term was first used in a 1964 study of British youth by Jane Deverson. In the 1991 book Generations, William Strauss and Neil Howe call this generation the "13th Generation" and define the birth years as 1961 to 1981. Using their methods, it is the 13th to know the flag of the United States (counting back to the peers of Benjamin Franklin).
Generation Y (1982–200…) is a cohort which consists of those people born after the Generation X cohort. The size of Generation Y in the United States is approximately 76 million.
The term Generation Y first appeared in an August 1993 Ad Age editorial to describe those teenagers born between 1974 and 1980. The scope of the term has changed greatly since then to include, in many cases, anyone born as late as 2001. There is no precise definition of years.
Use of the term Generation Y (often shortened to Gen Y) to describe any cohort of individuals is controversial for a variety of reasons. "Generation Y" alludes to a succession from "Generation X", a term which was originally coined as a pejorative label. In this sense, the use of Gen Y as a term only denotes "after Gen X" and fails to capture the cohort's unique social, political, and cultural experience. In addition, some members of this demographic group find it offensive.
Howe and Strauss use the term "Millennials" as opposed to "Generation Y", arguing that members of Gen Y actually coined the term Millennials themselves and have expressed a wish not to be associated closely with Gen X. They followed up their large study of the history of American demographics with a new book specifically on Gen Y, titled Millennials Rising.
In Generations, Howe and Strauss use the years 1982-2000 as the birth years of Generation Y, using the 18 childhood years of the high school graduating class of 2000 as their marking points. They reasoned that the high school class of 2000 received notable public attention and political initiatives during their youth that provided a contrast between Americans born before this class and those born after. This term relates to the generation's young age during the turn of the millennium.
Generation Z (200…-) is the generation of people living in Western or First World cultures that follows Generation Y. The generation begins sometime after 2000.
They are highly connected, having had lifelong use of communications and media technologies such as DVDs, the World Wide Web, instant messaging, text messaging, MP3 Players and cellular phones, earning them the nickname "digital natives".
They have grown up in a world with widespread equality of the sexes at work and at home, and where single-parent or same-sex parent families are commonplace, as are two-income families. Their lives are full of structured activities.
Итак, «теория поколений» Штрауса и Хоува имеет строгие географические и временные рамки. Никаких обобщенных теорий, все – относительно истории Америки. Следовательно, бессмысленно применять данную теорию к российской действительности. Даже имея огромную фантазию и «двойку» по истории, невозможно соотносить с историей России термин «великая депрессия», которая упоминается при характеристике Поколения G (заметьте, авторы не употребляют термин «мировой экономический кризис»).
Конечно, упоминание только одного понятия, имевшего отношение к США, не может лишить возможности нашего социума примерить на себя платье от американских дизайнеров. Но вы пробовали есть кусочек хлеба, который заплесневел только чуть-чуть, а не весь?
Этим вопросом подвожу черту под своими изысканиями, которые вовсе не претендуют на хоть сколько-нибудь околонаучный статус. Это всего лишь попытка истолковать такое новое явление в моей жизни, как «теория поколений».
Надо отдать должное Уильяму Штраусу и Нилу Хоуву, их труд великолепен. Они не стали оригинальничать, а взяли из истории Америки наименования определенных событий и подвели под них определенные социологические познания. Хотелось бы увидеть нечто подобное и оригинальное, но принадлежащие перу российского социолога.
P.S.: Задумайтесь над датой "1584" в истории Северной Америки. Не связана ли она с именем Уолтера Рэйли (Sir Walter Raleigh)?
Хотя, о чем это я. 1584 год как нельзя лучше подходит и к истории нашей страны. Как никак, это год смерти Ивана Грозного и венчания на царство Федора Иоанновича.